Navigating Tax Considerations to Handle and Support schools on their Educational Mission
Educational institutions are tasked with shaping future generations. This guide is part of a four-part series. Here we delve into the world of tax planning, helping schools make informed financial decisions to support their educational missions.
Understanding School Tax Status
Tax-exempt status for schools allows them to keep more of their resources available to support their mission. It also makes it more attractive for individuals and businesses to donate to schools, since they can deduct their donations from their taxable income.
Types of Educational Institutions
The different classifications of schools include:
- Public schools are funded by government taxes and are free to attend for all students. Public schools are not tax-exempt, but they do receive several tax benefits, such as exemptions from property taxes and sales tax on certain purchases.
- Private schools are funded by tuition fees and other private sources. Private schools may be tax-exempt, depending on their structure and operations.
- Nonprofit schools are private schools that are operated by nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit schools are exempt from federal income tax, but they may be subject to state and local taxes.
Tax Compliance for Schools
IRS Form 990
Tax-exempt schools must file an annual tax return with the IRS. The specific tax return that a school is required to file will depend on the school’s structure and size. Most tax-exempt schools are required to file Form 990, which is a detailed report of the school’s income, expenses, and activities.
Unrelated Business Income
If a school generates income from an activity that is unrelated to its educational mission, it must pay tax on that income. This is known as unrelated business income (UBI). Some examples of UBI include income from advertising, rental income, and income from the sale of merchandise.
Funding and Donations
Tuition and Scholarship Taxation
Tuition fees paid by students are generally not taxable income for schools. However, schools may be required to pay tax on income from scholarships if the scholarships are not used to pay for qualified educational expenses.
Endowments and Gifts
Endowments and charitable gifts are generally not taxable income for schools. However, schools may be required to pay tax on income from investments related to their endowments.
State Taxation for Schools
Schools may be required to file state tax returns and pay state sales tax. State tax laws vary widely, so schools should consult with a tax professional to understand their state tax obligations.
Sales Tax and Fundraisers
Schools may be exempt from paying sales tax on certain purchases, such as goods and services to support their educational mission. However, schools may be required to collect and remit sales tax on certain sales, such as sales made at fundraising events.
Tax Credits and Deductions
There are many education tax credits available to students and parents. Schools can inform students and parents about these tax credits so that they can take advantage of them.
Educators may be eligible for some tax deductions, such as deductions for unreimbursed classroom expenses and student loan interest. Schools can inform teachers about these tax deductions so that they can take advantage of them.
Nonprofit vs. For-Profit Schools
Nonprofit schools are exempt from federal income tax, while for-profit schools are subject to federal income tax. Nonprofit schools may also be eligible for certain tax credits and deductions that are not available to for-profit schools.
Impact of Tax Reform
Recent tax reforms have made some changes to the tax treatment of schools. For example, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 doubled the standard deduction, which may reduce the number of taxpayers who claim education tax credits.
Tax Planning and Budgeting
When allocating funds, schools should consider the tax consequences of their decisions. For example, schools may want to prioritize spending on tax-deductible expenses.
Long-Term Financial Planning
Schools should align their financial strategies with their mission. For example, schools may consider establishing an endowment to support their long-term financial needs.
Challenges in School Taxation
Schools may be subject to IRS audits. Schools should prepare for IRS audits by keeping thorough records and by having a system in place to respond to IRS inquiries.
Tax Law Changes
Tax laws are constantly changing, which can make it difficult for schools to keep up with the latest changes. Schools should consult with a tax professional to stay up-to-date on the latest tax laws and regulations.
Innovations in School Taxation
Digital tools can streamline tax compliance and reporting for schools. For example, schools can use cloud-based accounting software to track their income and expenses.
Education Finance Platforms
Fintech platforms tailored for educational institutions are emerging. These platforms can help schools to manage their finances, comply with tax laws, and access funding opportunities.
Schools play a vital role in shaping the future. By navigating the complexities of tax planning, educational institutions can allocate resources wisely, ensuring that every dollar supports their mission of providing quality education. Schools should consult with a tax professional to develop a tax plan that meets their needs and comply with all applicable tax laws and regulations. So, utilize marketplaces like IfindTaxPro where you can post your project and find the right tax specialist for you